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Cubeb Essential Oil

Piper cubeba

Cubeb Essential Oil


Cubeb Essential Oil is also referred to as Java Pepper Essential Oil.

Comprised primarily of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenols, Cubeb Essential Oil is a beautiful essential oil to try for respiratory issues, pain relief, and digestive complaints. See the Uses section below for more information on the benefits of Cubeb Essential Oil.

Bottle Depicting the Typical Color of Cubeb Essential Oil

Aromatically, Cubeb Essential Oil is a warm, sweet oil with a slight peppery characteristic. Although Cubeb (Piper cubeba) has similarities to Black Pepper (Piper nigrum), Cubeb Essential Oil is not as peppery in aroma as Black Pepper Essential Oil. It's a softer, mellower, warming essential oil that serves as a middle-base note in fragrancing applications. If you find Black Pepper Oil too intense for your purposes, Cubeb Essential Oil may be the perfect alternative for you. Cubeb Essential Oil blends well with other spice essential oils. I also see it blending beautifully with Vanilla CO2, Copaiba Balsam and essential oils in the wood and citrus families. If Vetiver or Patchouli essential oils are too aromatically heavy for you, try softening them by using Cubeb Oil.

Emotionally, Cubeb Essential Oil is a light, calming essential oil that can help to balance the emotions, softening the edges and helping to gently energize as needed. It makes a wonderful supporting essential oil for blends intended to help uplift and energize without being too stimulating.

Cubeb Essential Oil Benefits and Uses

  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Leukorrhea
  • Bronchitis
  • Congestion
  • Coughs
  • Mucus
  • Sinusitis
  • Throat Infections
  • Flatulence
  • Sluggish Digestion
  • Indigestion

Source: Neryls Purchon and Lora Cantele, Complete Aromatherapy & Essential Oils Handbook for Everyday Wellness (Toronto ON: Robert Rose, 2014), 52.

Botanical Name

Piper cubeba

Plant Family


Common Method of Extraction

Steam Distilled

Plant Part Typically Used



Clear to Pale Yellow



Perfumery Note

Middle - Base

Strength of Initial Aroma

Light - Medium

Aromatic Description

Cubeb Essential Oil smells warm, sweet and slightly peppery.

Major Constituents of Cubeb Essential Oil

  • Sabinene
  • Cubebol
  • a-Copaene
  • B-Cubebene
  • Delta-Cadinene
  • a-Cubebene
  • a-Pinene
  • Gamma-Humulene
  • (+)-Limonene
  • (-)-allo-Aromadendrene
  • Gamma-Muurolene
  • (Z)-Calamene
  • B-Caryophyllene

Source: B.M. Lawrence, Essential Oils 1979-1980 (Wheaton: Allured Publishing, 1981), 43-44. B.M. Lawrence, Progress in Essential Oils, Number 4. (Perfumer & Flavorist 25, 2000), 78-81. Sources cited in Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 263.

Cubeb Essential Oil Safety Information

Tisserand and Young recommend a dermal maximum of 7.5%. Reading Tisserand and Young's full profile is recommended. [Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young, Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014), 263.]

General Safety Information

Do not take any oils internally and do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin without advanced essential oil knowledge or consultation from a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. For general dilution information, read AromaWeb's Guide to Diluting Essential Oils. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and be sure to first read the recommended dilution ratios for children. Consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children, the elderly, if you have medical issues or are taking medications. Before using this or any essential oil, carefully read AromaWeb's Essential Oil Safety Information page. For in-depth information on oil safety issues, read Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand and Rodney Young.

Shelf Life

View Shelf Life Information

Important Information About the Profiles

The essential oil information provided on AromaWeb is intended for basic educational purposes only. The references to safety information, test results, constituents and percentages is generalized information. Essential oils can vary greatly in composition. The data is not necessary complete and is not guaranteed to be accurate. The essential oil photos are intended to represent the typical and approximate color of each essential oil. However, essential oil composition and color can vary based on harvesting, distillation, age of the essential oil and other factors. Profiles for several CO2 Extracts and absolutes are included within the directory, and are denoted as such.

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