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Aromatic Botanicals, Aromatherapy and the Bible
The Old and New Testament books of the Bible are thought to have been written between the years 1500 B.C. and 100 A.D. Genesis is the first book of the Old Testament. It is the book that describes creation and was written by Moses around 1450 B.C. Depending upon who you consult, it is believed that the time of creation may have occured around 4000 B.C.
In these ancient Biblical times, the distillation technology needed to distill essential oils hadn't yet been discovered. The Bible is rich in references to aromatic botanicals, aromatic oils and anointing oils. The aromatic and anointing oils mentioned throughout the Bible were likely to be what we refer to today as infused oils.
Infused oils are carrier oils (vegetable oils) that have been infused with with one or more botanicals. The infused oil contains the aromatic and the therapeutic properties of both the carrier oil and the herbs that were infused into the oil.
AromaWeb's What are Infused Oils? article describes Infused Oils in more detail and explains how you can make your own infused oils at home.
Infused oils were used in spiritual practices for the anointing and blessing of individuals as well as for a basis for men's and women's fragrancing of the hair and body.
In Biblical times, anointing oils were made using pure vegetable oils that were typically infused with botanicals. Anointing oils are used to bless and purify a person or an object. Today, anointing oils are still used and are often made in the same manner. Essential oils can also be added to a carrier oil to create a sacred anointing oil.
Exodus 30:22-31 (NIV) includes an anointing oil recipe and describes using it to anoint both an individual and object:
"Then the Lord said to Moses, 'Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much (that is, 250 shekels) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of fragrant cane, 500 shekels of cassia all according to the sanctuary shekel and a hin of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil. Then use it to anoint the Tent of Meeting, the ark of the Testimony, the table and all its articles, the lampstand and its accessories, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt offerings and all its utensils, and the basin with its stand. You shall consecreate them so they will be most holy, and whatever touches them will be holy. Anoint Aaron and his sons and consecrate them so they may serve me as priests.Say to the Israelites, 'This is to be my sacred anointing oil for the generations to come...'"
1 Samuel 10:1 (NIV) describes how the anointing oil is applied:
1 Samuel 16:12-13 (NIV) tells of the initial anointing of David:
Genesis 35:14 (NIV) describes Jacob pouring oil onto a pillar (the anointing of an object):
Luke 7: 36-38 shares how a woman, in tears over her sin, applies fragranced oil to Christ's feet:
Some debate exists over this story, but it's believed that this woman sought to seek forgiveness and bless (anoint) Christ. Regardless, this story reflects the honest and loving desire of this repentent woman to respectfully bless Jesus' feet. This story also shows that anointing of not only the head, but also the feet was prefered at that time. Speculation exists to what type of "perfume" was used by this woman to anoint Jesus' feet. It is likely that she used a very costly virgin olive oil that was fragranced with myrrh or other costly botanicals. It is said that the oil she used was quite precious and may have cost up to a year's salary.
For more information about anointing oils and for recipes for creating your own anointing oils, refer to Aromatherapy Anointing Oils: Spiritual Blessings, Ceremonies & Affirmations by Joni Keim Loughran and Rual Bull.
Aromatic botanicals and infused oils were also widely used for more secular reasons:
Enhance Romance and Sensuality
To Camoflauge Unpleasant Body
To Suggest Social Status
Incense is described throughout the bible. Initial references occur in Exodus:
Incense of Biblical days is not the typical incense "sticks" or "cones" that most westerners are familiar with. The incense consisted of loose aromatic botanicals. Aromatic botanicals used as incense during Biblical times are thought to include the following:
For more information about natural incense, read AromaWeb's two incense articles:
For a list of biblical references to the aromatic botanicals mentioned in the bible, read AromaWeb's Aromatic Botanicals of Biblical Days article.
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